This factsheet offers a timeline of the understandings and justifications for 'race' that were deployed from the 18th to 20th centuries. The factsheet argues that popular conceptions of 'race' must move beyond scientific and biological understandings to one which situates racism as the perpetrator of 'race' carrying very real political, social and economic consequences.
Banton, M. (2018). The Scientific Sources of the Paradox. What we Now Know About Race and Ethnicity, 1st ed. Berghahn Books, pp. 11-30. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt130h8qv.5